The DES said it was satisfied the latest version of the plan, which was only submitted yesterday, sufficiently established the main source aquifer of the springs as the Clematis sandstone.
Adani Mining CEO Lucas Dow said the approval was confirmation the plan complied with all regulatory conditions set by the Australian and state governments, as well as reviews by CSIRO and Geoscience Australia.
The approval paves the way for construction to begin.
"Moving forward, our priority is ensuring the safety of everyone who works on the project and that all construction activity meets the strict environmental requirements we have agreed to meet in our management plans and approvals," Dow said.
"Over the coming days preparatory activities such as finalising contracts, mobilising equipment, recruitment and completing inductions will continue.
"These preparatory actions will enable us to then start construction activities including fencing, bridge and road upgrades, water management and civil earthworks on the mine site. The level of construction activity will then steadily increase over the coming weeks."
Adani said the project would generate 1500 direct jobs and 6750 indirect jobs.
"We're ready to start work on the Carmichael project and deliver the jobs these regions so badly need," Dow said.
Federal minister for resources and Northern Australia Matt Canavan said it was an historic day for Queensland.
"They say things come to those who wait but we should not have had to wait this long," he said.
"The people of Queensland have had to do more than wait too. They have had to fight a heartless Queensland government who has told them to ‘reskill' rather than develop jobs for our region."
Minerals Council of Australia CEO Tania Constable said the approval represented an overdue vote of confidence in the science and evidence-based approach to approving projects.
"Through mining taxes and royalties, the Carmichael mine will generate billions of dollars for taxpayers over decades to fund nurses, teachers, police, hospitals, roads and other services and infrastructure for Queensland families and communities," she said.
"The mine will also open up the Galilee Basin for further investment and development - an exciting new phase in Australia's rich history of mining exploration and development, which has made our nation a global mining powerhouse.
"New global opportunities will also be delivered by exporting coal to India to help meet the growing demand for energy and strengthen vital trade and commercial opportunities between our two countries."
Not everyone welcomed the approval with Greenpeace Australia Pacific CEO David Ritter describing it as "appalling" for people, wildlife and a thriving living planet.
"This decision will be remembered as an infamous failure of good governance of our precious country. Coal is the number one driver of the climate crisis in Australia, which is exacerbating droughts all over the country," he said.
"As droughts become worse and more intense from climate change, the Queensland Government's approval of Adani's plan to let its coal mine suck ancient water sources dry is a slap in the face of common sense."